Matt RaibleMatt Raible is a Java Champion and Developer Advocate at Okta. developer.okta.com

The JHipster Mini-Book The JHipster Mini-Book is a guide to getting started with hip technologies today: Angular, Bootstrap, and Spring Boot. All of these frameworks are wrapped up in an easy-to-use project called JHipster.

This book shows you how to build an app with JHipster, and guides you through the plethora of tools, techniques and options you can use. Furthermore, it explains the UI and API building blocks so you understand the underpinnings of your great application.

For book updates, follow @jhipster-book on Twitter.

10+ YEARS


Over 10 years ago, I wrote my first blog post. Since then, I've authored books, had kids, traveled the world, found Trish and blogged about it all.

My Comparing JVM Web Frameworks Presentation from Devoxx 2010

This week, I've been having a great time in Antwerp, Belgium at the Devoxx Conference. This morning, I had the pleasure of delivering my Comparing JVM Web Frameworks talk. I thoroughly enjoyed giving this presentation, especially to such a large audience. You can view the presentation below (if you have Flash installed) or download it here.

Unlike previous years, I chose to come up with a spreadsheet matrix that shows why I chose the 5 I did. This spreadsheet and rankings given to each framework are likely to be debated, as I don't know all the frameworks as well as I'd like to. Also, the missing column on this spreadsheet is a "weighting" column where you can prioritize certain criteria like I've done in the past when Comparing Ajax Frameworks. If you believe there are incorrect numbers, please let me know and I'll try to get those fixed before I do this talk again at The Rich Web Experience.

One thing that doesn't come across in this presentation is that I believe anyone can use this matrix, and weightings, to make any of these frameworks come out on top. I also believe web frameworks are like spaghetti sauce in The Ketchup Conundrum. That is, the only way to make more happy spaghetti sauce lovers was to make more types of spaghetti sauce. You can read more about this in my There is no "best" web framework article.

Update: If you disagree with the various ratings I gave to web frameworks in this presentation, please provide your opinions by filling out this survey. Thanks to Sebastien Arbogast for setting this up.

Update: Sebastien has posted his survey results at JVM Web Framework Survey, First Results.

Update 12/6: A video of this presentation is now available on Parleys.com.

P.S. My current gig is ending in mid-December. If you're looking for a UI Architect with a passion for open source frameworks, please let me know.

Posted in Java at Nov 18 2010, 05:23:10 AM MST 39 Comments

AppFuse 2.1 Milestone 2 Released

I'm pleased to announce the 2nd milestone release of AppFuse 2.1. This release includes upgrades to all dependencies to bring them up-to-date with their latest releases. Most notable are Spring 3 and Struts 2.1. This release fixes many issues with archetypes and contains many improvements to support Maven 3. For more details on specific changes see the 2.1.0 M2 release notes.

What is AppFuse?
AppFuse is an open source project and application that uses open source frameworks to help you develop Web applications quickly and efficiently. It was originally developed to eliminate the ramp-up time when building new web applications. At its core, AppFuse is a project skeleton, similar to the one that's created by your IDE when you click through a wizard to create a new web project. If you use JRebel with AppFuse, you can achieve zero-turnaround in your project and develop features without restarting the server.

Release Details
Archetypes now include all the source for the web modules so using jetty:run and your IDE will work much smoother now. The backend is still embedded in JARs, enabling you to choose with persistence framework (Hibernate, iBATIS or JPA) you'd like to use. If you want to modify the source for that, add the core classes to your project or run "appfuse:full-source".

AppFuse comes in a number of different flavors. It offers "light", "basic" and "modular" and archetypes. Light archetypes use an embedded H2 database and contain a simple CRUD example. In the final 2.1.0 release, the light archetypes will allow code generation like the basic and modular archetypes. Basic archetypes have web services using CXF, authentication from Spring Security and features including signup, login, file upload and CSS theming. Modular archetypes are similar to basic archetypes, except they have multiple modules which allows you to separate your services from your web project.

AppFuse provides archetypes for JSF, Spring MVC, Struts 2 and Tapestry 5. The light archetypes are available for these frameworks, as well as for Spring MVC + FreeMarker, Stripes and Wicket.

Please note that this release does not contain updates to the documentation. Code generation will work, but it's likely that some content in the tutorials won't match. For example, you can use annotations (vs. XML) for Spring MVC and Tapestry is a whole new framework. I'll be working on documentation over the next several weeks in preparation for the 2.1 final release.

For information on creating a new project, please see the QuickStart Guide.

If you have questions about AppFuse, please read the FAQ or join the user mailing list. If you find bugs, please create an issue in JIRA.

Thanks to everyone for their help contributing patches, writing documentation and participating on the mailing lists.

Posted in Java at Nov 15 2010, 03:28:57 PM MST 2 Comments

AppFuse 2.1 Milestone 1 Released

The AppFuse Team is pleased to announce the first milestone release of AppFuse 2.1. This release includes upgrades to all dependencies to bring them up-to-date with their latest releases. Most notable are Hibernate, Spring and Tapestry 5.

What is AppFuse?
AppFuse is an open source project and application that uses open source tools built on the Java platform to help you develop Web applications quickly and efficiently. It was originally developed to eliminate the ramp-up time found when building new web applications for customers. At its core, AppFuse is a project skeleton, similar to the one that's created by your IDE when you click through a wizard to create a new web project.

Release Details
Archetypes now include all the source for the web modules so using jetty:run and your IDE will work much smoother now. The backend is still embedded in JARs, enabling you to choose which persistence framework (Hibernate, iBATIS or JPA) you'd like to use. If you want to modify the source for that, add the core classes to your project or run appfuse:full-source.

In addition, AppFuse Light has been converted to Maven and has archetypes available. AppFuse provides archetypes for JSF, Spring MVC, Struts 2 and Tapestry 5. The light archetypes are available for these frameworks, as well as for Spring MVC + FreeMarker, Stripes and Wicket.

Other notable improvements:

Please note that this release does not contain updates to the documentation. Code generation will work, but it's likely that some content in the tutorials won't match. For example, you can use annotations (vs. XML) for dependency injection and Tapestry is a whole new framework. I'll be working on documentation over the next several weeks in preparation for Milestone 2.

AppFuse is available as several Maven archetypes. For information on creating a new project, please see the QuickStart Guide.

To learn more about AppFuse, please read Ryan Withers' Igniting your applications with AppFuse.

The 2.x series of AppFuse has a minimum requirement of the following specification versions:

  • Java Servlet 2.4 and JSP 2.0 (2.1 for JSF)
  • Java 5+

If you have questions about AppFuse, please read the FAQ or join the user mailing list. If you find bugs, please create an issue in JIRA.

Thanks to everyone for their help contributing code, writing documentation, posting to the mailing lists, and logging issues.

Posted in Java at Nov 19 2009, 07:16:36 AM MST 8 Comments

RE: Which is the Hottest Java Web Framework?

The "Break it Down" Blog has a lengthy post on Which is the Hottest Java Web Framework? Or Maybe Not Java? Comparing Java Web Frameworks is hard because so many people are passionate about the framework they know best. Add a couple more like Flex and Ruby on Rails and its downright difficult. Nevertheless, this post is good in that it contains a lot of pretty trend graphs and it looks like the author has done some good research. It's likely the folks that will scream foul are the ones that did poor in the comparison (Tapestry and Stripes, I'm talking about you).

Surprising among the top Java Web Frameworks is the rise of Struts 2:

Google Trends Graph

To quote:

Which is much more interesting I think is how Wicket adoption has stayed almost flat while Struts 2 adoption has spiked. Spring MVC/WebFlow seems to be going no where fast and racing JBoss Seam there.

The popularity of Struts 2 really caught me off guard with it being quite a bit different from Struts 1, I figured it got thrown into the "just another web framework" category, but I guess there is something in a name and it's doing quite well.

Regardless of what you think of the post and trends, you have to appreciate the amount of time the author put into it.

Posted in Java at Jun 10 2008, 10:39:08 PM MDT 14 Comments

Spring MVC vs. JSF and The State of Spring Web

Alternative Adult has only posted a couple times in 2008, but his entries have peaked my interest.

Spring MVC or JSF+?
My business unit is trying to standardize if we can on a single Java-based Web framework going forward to simplify the Web development process, especially as individual developers move from one division to another, or centralized support groups need to maintain multiple applications from multiple divisions.

At the enterprise level within my company, the architecture group says that they will provide support for either Spring MVC or JSF+ (where the + represents the accompanying technologies you would use to provide a more maintainable application and a more rich user experience, e.g. Facelets, Richfaces, etc.).

Now my business unit is trying to decide which of these two frameworks, Spring MVC or JSF+, is the most appropriate to standardize upon for our development community. [Read More]

...and...

State of Spring Web
For those that are interested, the following is a summary of the notes I captured from a conversation with SpringSource on the state of Spring Web. [Read More]

Good stuff Michael - keep it coming.

Posted in Java at May 16 2008, 06:17:52 PM MDT 6 Comments

AppFuse 2.0.2 Released

The AppFuse Team is pleased to announce the release of AppFuse 2.0.2. This release includes upgrades to Spring Security 2.0, jMock 2.4, the ability to customize code generation templates and many bug fixes.

For information on upgrading from 2.0.1, see the Release Notes or changelog. AppFuse 2.0.2 is available as a Maven archetype. For information on creating a new project using AppFuse, please see the QuickStart Guide or the demos and videos.

To learn more about AppFuse, please read Ryan Withers' Igniting your applications with AppFuse.

The 2.0 series of AppFuse has a minimum requirement of the following specification versions:

  • Java Servlet 2.4 and JSP 2.0 (2.1 for JSF)
  • Java 5+

If you've used AppFuse 1.x, but not 2.x, you'll want to read the FAQ. Join the user mailing list if you have any questions.

Thanks to everyone for their help contributing code, writing documentation, posting to the mailing lists, and logging issues.

Please post any issues you have with this release to the mailing list.

Posted in Java at May 11 2008, 11:25:40 PM MDT 4 Comments

AppFuse Light 1.8.2 Released

AppFuse Light 1.8.2 is a bug fixes release that includes upgrades for Spring, Spring Security, Hibernate, Wicket, Tapestry and many others. In addition, Spring bean definitions were replaced with annotations (@Repository, @Service and @Controller). See the Release Notes for more information on what's changed since the last release.

AppFuse Light now offers 60 possible combinations for download:

  • Web Frameworks: JSF (MyFaces), Spring MVC (with Ajax, Acegi Security, JSP, FreeMarker or Velocity), Stripes, Struts 1.x, Struts 2.x, Tapestry, WebWork, Wicket
  • Persistence Frameworks: Hibernate, iBATIS, JDO (JPOX), OJB, Spring JDBC

AppFuse Light Screenshot - click on the box at the bottom right of AL to activate StyleSheet Switcher

If you have any questions about this release, please subscribe to the AppFuse user mailing list by sending a blank e-mail to users-subscribe@appfuse.dev.java.net. You can also post questions in a forum-like fashion using Nabble: http://appfuse.org/forum/user.

Posted in Java at May 11 2008, 10:16:17 PM MDT Add a Comment

Running Spring MVC Web Applications in OSGi

For the past couple of weeks, I've been developing a web application that deploys into an OSGi container (Equinox) and uses Spring DM's Spring MVC support. The first thing I discovered was that Spring MVC's annotations weren't supported in the M1 release. This was apparently caused by a bug in Spring 2.5.3 and not Spring DM. Since Spring DM 1.1.0 M2 was released with Spring 2.5.4 today, I believe this is fixed now.

The story below is about my experience getting a Spring MVC application up and running in Equinox 3.2.2, Jetty 6.1.9 and Spring DM 1.1.0 M2 SNAPSHOT (from last week). If you want to read more about why Spring MVC + OSGi is cool, see Costin Leau's Web Applications and OSGi article.

To get a simple "Hello World" Spring MVC application working in OSGi is pretty easy. The hard part is setting up a container with all the Spring and Jetty bundles installed and started. I imagine SSAP might solve this. Luckily for me, this was done by another member of my team.

After you've done this, it's simply a matter of creating a MANIFEST.MF for your WAR that contains the proper information for OSGi to recognize. Below is the one that I used when I first tried to get my application working.

Manifest-Version: 1
Bundle-ManifestVersion: 2
Spring-DM-Version: 1.1.0-m2-SNAPSHOT
Spring-Version: 2.5.2
Bundle-Name: Simple OSGi War
Bundle-SymbolicName: myapp
Bundle-Classpath: .,WEB-INF/classes,WEB-INF/lib/freemarker-2.3.12.jar,
 WEB-INF/lib/sitemesh-2.3.jar,WEB-INF/lib/urlrewritefilter-3.0.4.jar,
 WEB-INF/lib/spring-beans-2.5.2.jar,WEB-INF/lib/spring-context-2.5.2.jar,
 WEB-INF/lib/spring-context-support-2.5.2.jar,WEB-INF/lib/spring-core-2.5.2.jar,
 WEB-INF/lib/spring-web-2.5.2.jar,WEB-INF/lib/spring-webmvc-2.5.2.jar 
Import-Package: javax.servlet,javax.servlet.http,javax.servlet.resources,javax.swing.tree,
 javax.naming,org.w3c.dom,org.apache.commons.logging,javax.xml.parsers;resolution:=optional,
 org.xml.sax;resolution:=optional,org.xml.sax.helpers;resolution:=optional

Ideally, you could generate this MANIFEST.MF using the maven-bundle-plugin. However, it doesn't support WARs in its 1.4.0 release.

You can see this is an application that uses Spring MVC, FreeMarker, SiteMesh and the URLRewriteFilter. You should be able to download it, unzip it, run "mvn package" and install it into Equinox using "install file://<path to war>".

That's all fine and dandy, but doesn't give you any benefits of OSGi. This setup works great until you try to import OSGi services using a context file with an <osgi:reference> element. After adding such a reference, it's likely you'll get the following error:

SEVERE: Context initialization failed
org.springframework.beans.factory.parsing.BeanDefinitionParsingException:
Configuration problem: Unable to locate Spring NamespaceHandler for
XML schema namespace [http://www.springframework.org/schema/osgi]

To fix this, add the following to your web.xml (if you're using ContextLoaderListener, as an <init-parameter> on DispatcherServlet if you're not):

  <context-param>
    <param-name>contextClass</param-name>
    <param-value>org.springframework.osgi.web.context.support.OsgiBundleXmlWebApplicationContext</param-value>
  </context-param>

After doing this, you might get the following error on startup:

SEVERE: Context initialization failed
org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextException: Custom
context class [org.springframework.osgi.web.context.support.OsgiBundleXmlWebApplicationContext]
is not of type [org.springframework.web.context.ConfigurableWebApplicationContext] 

To fix this, I change from referencing the Spring JARs in WEB-INF/lib to importing the packages for Spring (which were already installed in my Equinox container).

Bundle-Classpath: .,WEB-INF/classes,WEB-INF/lib/freemarker-2.3.12.jar,
 WEB-INF/lib/sitemesh-2.3.jar,WEB-INF/lib/urlrewritefilter-3.0.4.jar
Import-Package:
javax.servlet,javax.servlet.http,javax.servlet.resources,javax.swing.tree,
 javax.naming,org.w3c.dom,org.apache.commons.logging,javax.xml.parsers;resolution:=optional,
 org.xml.sax;resolution:=optional,org.xml.sax.helpers;resolution:=optional,
 org.springframework.osgi.web.context.support,
 org.springframework.context.support,
 org.springframework.web.context,
 org.springframework.web.context.support,
 org.springframework.web.servlet,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.support,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.view,
 org.springframework.ui,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker 

After rebuilding my WAR and reloading the bundle in Equinox, I was confronted with the following error message:

SEVERE: Context initialization failed
org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error
creating bean with name 'freemarkerConfig' defined in ServletContext
resource [/WEB-INF/myapp-servlet.xml]: Instantiation of bean failed;
nested exception is java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError:
freemarker/cache/TemplateLoader
        at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.instantiateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:851) 

As far as I can tell, this is because the version of Spring MVC installed in Equinox cannot resolve the FreeMarker JAR in my WEB-INF/lib directory.

To prove I wasn't going insane, I commented out my "freemarkerConfig" and "viewResolver" beans in myapp-servlet.xml and changed to a regular ol' InternalResourceViewResolver:

<bean id="viewResolver" class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver">
    <property name="prefix" value="/"/>
    <property name="suffix" value=".jsp"/>
</bean>

This worked and I was able to successfully see "Hello World" from a JSP in my browser. FreeMarker/SiteMesh worked too, but FreeMarker didn't work as a View for Spring MVC.

To attempt to solve this, I create a bundle for FreeMarker using "java -jar bnd-0.0.249.jar wrap freemarker-2.3.12.jar" and installed it in Equinox. I then change my MANIFEST.MF to use FreeMarker imports instead of referencing the JAR in WEB-INF/lib.

Bundle-Classpath:
.,WEB-INF/classes,WEB-INF/lib/sitemesh-2.3.jar,WEB-INF/lib/urlrewritefilter-3.0.4.jar
Import-Package:
javax.servlet,javax.servlet.http,javax.servlet.resources,javax.swing.tree,
 javax.naming,org.w3c.dom,org.apache.commons.logging,javax.xml.parsers;resolution:=optional,
 org.xml.sax;resolution:=optional,org.xml.sax.helpers;resolution:=optional,
 org.springframework.osgi.web.context.support,
 org.springframework.context.support,
 org.springframework.web.context,
 org.springframework.web.context.support,
 org.springframework.web.servlet,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.support,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.view,
 org.springframework.ui,
 org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker,
 freemarker.cache,freemarker.core,freemarker.template,freemarker.ext.servlet 

Unfortunately, this still doesn't work and I still haven't been able to get FreeMarker to work with Spring MVC in OSGi. The crazy thing is I actually solved this at one point a week ago. Shortly after, I rebuilt Equinox from scratch and I'm been banging my head against the wall over this issue ever since. Last week, I entered an issue in Spring's JIRA, but thought I'd fixed it a few hours later.

I've uploaded the final project that's not working to the following URL:

http://static.raibledesigns.com/downloads/myapp-osgi.zip

If you'd like to see this project work with Spring MVC + JSP, simply modify myapp-servlet.xml to remove the FreeMarker references and use the InternalResourceViewResolver instead.

I hope Spring DM + Spring MVC supports more than just JSP as a view technology. I hope I can't get FreeMarker working because of some oversight on my part. If you have a Spring DM + Spring MVC application working with Velocity or FreeMarker, I'd love to hear about it.

Posted in Java at Apr 30 2008, 12:42:34 AM MDT 14 Comments

Spring MVC's Conventions get even better

Spring 2.5.3 was released this morning and contains a new feature I really like. When I first started working with Spring MVC's annotations (way back in November of last year), I found it awkward that I had to hard-code the URLs for my controllers into @RequestMappings on methods. Previous to annotations, I was using Spring's ControllerClassNameHandlerMapping which allows for more conventions-based URL-mappings.

With 2.5.3, @Controller and ControllerClassNameHandlerMapping have been synced up so you don't have to specify URLs in your annotations anymore. Thanks guys!

Posted in Java at Apr 07 2008, 09:43:42 AM MDT 4 Comments

David Sachdev on Web Framework Proliferation

David Sachdev left the following comment in my post about the Java Web Framework Smackdown at TSSJS in Vegas:

The number of web frameworks out there is just astonishing, and in alot of ways I think that there is need for some consolidation in some way, shape or form. If you work in the Java world there is a sense of consolidation in the ORM space these days with JPA (the Java Persistence API). Sure if you are working strictly with JPA it is a bit more limiting then working directly with Hibernate, iBatis, or TopLink - but you no longer worry that you have made a critical misstep in your architecture by tying yourself do a particular ORM implementation. Similarly Spring gives you that similar "loosely coupled" feel that if Google's Guice because appealing to you, you don't feel like you've wasted all your framework foo on Spring. But web frameworks....that's another story.

I think if you had asked me a few months ago, I would have told you that the industry is promoting JSF (Java Server Faces). Everything from support in the IDEs to the availability of AJAX frameworks...and of course a flexible life cycle that allows for alternate implementations and various code to plug or be weaved in to the life cycle. And that while JSF on its own left quite a bit to be desired, the JBoss Seam project really has filled in the gaps in JSF, and in fact brought Java web development closer in agility to the Rails and Grails of the world that tout quickly built and deployed web applications.

But the thing that you continue to hear is that programming in JSF is painful. And you hear that EVERYONE used to use Struts. And that it is time to move past Struts. And given that, you have to consider Webwork and the merger of Struts2 into that framework - and their claims of rapid development. But you also have to consider Spring WebFlow and how that may help solve your JSF ills given that everyone is building off of the Spring Framework and they have been so good about keeping the framework updated and integrating the best of what is out there while innovating themselves. And then if you are looking at Spring WebFlow, you kinda have to go "Wait, but what about Spring MVC?"

Given its age, you might quickly dismiss Spring MVC until you realize that Grails is build upon it. Grails, that web platform that every java developer is either working with, or intends to work with soon. (Come on, you all have made the Ruby/Rails, Groovy/Grails, JRuby decision in favor of G2, right? I mean all the flexibility of what is out there in the Java world on top of the JVM, with a language that doesn't suck the life outta you....) And then you have to wonder that if you build upon Spring MVC as well as using Groovy and Grails where appropriate, might you be able to make that killer app in half the time.

But wait, you didn't think your choices were nearly that simple did you? There is this wonderful software company out in Mountain View that we need to pay attention too. In Google We Trust, right? And even if you don't worship at the Temple of the G (TOTG) like Sprout, you don't want to ignore them. And, if you've looked at the Google Web Toolkit (GWT) and weren't at least slightly impressed, I would be surprised. And if you are looking at the GWT, you can't totally ignore Yahoo's YUI - maybe with some of the what Prototype, Scriptaculous, or DoJo offer you. And then someone will come over and point out Echo2 to you, and well you have to admit, their demo looks nice. And well, there is Adobe Flex, and OpenLaszlo - I mean after all isn't Web 2.0 all about Rich Internet Applications. And surely you've heard that the performance of Swing is so much better these days and the "power of the modern Java applet"

So at the end of it all, you've got yourself alot of R&D to do, and just as you thing you've got a good grasp for the offerings out there, new and improved versions are out. And don't worry, someone else is also busy working on a new and greater web framework that you have to consider.

Wow - that's quite a mouthful David. Well written!

P.S. The Early Bird Deadline for TSSJS is today.

Posted in Java at Feb 22 2008, 02:47:44 PM MST 6 Comments