Matt RaibleMatt Raible is a Web Developer and Java Champion. Connect with him on LinkedIn.

The Angular Mini-Book The Angular Mini-Book is a guide to getting started with Angular. You'll learn how to develop a bare-bones application, test it, and deploy it. Then you'll move on to adding Bootstrap, Angular Material, continuous integration, and authentication.

Spring Boot is a popular framework for building REST APIs. You'll learn how to integrate Angular with Spring Boot and use security best practices like HTTPS and a content security policy.

For book updates, follow @angular_book on Twitter.

The JHipster Mini-Book The JHipster Mini-Book is a guide to getting started with hip technologies today: Angular, Bootstrap, and Spring Boot. All of these frameworks are wrapped up in an easy-to-use project called JHipster.

This book shows you how to build an app with JHipster, and guides you through the plethora of tools, techniques and options you can use. Furthermore, it explains the UI and API building blocks so you understand the underpinnings of your great application.

For book updates, follow @jhipster-book on Twitter.


Over 10 years ago, I wrote my first blog post. Since then, I've authored books, had kids, traveled the world, found Trish and blogged about it all.

PhoneGap for Hybrid App Development

This afternoon, I attended Brian LeRoux's talk on PhoneGap for Hybrid App Development at Devoxx. You might remember that I tried PhoneGap last week and really enjoyed my experience. Below are my notes from Brian's talk.

PhoneGap is a project for creating native applications using HTML, CSS and JavaScript. PhoneGap started out as a hack. In 2007, Apple shipped the iPhone and Steve Jobs told everyone they should develop webapps. PhoneGap started in 2008 as a lofty summertime hack and gained traction as a concept at Nitobi with Android and Blackberry implementations in the fall. In 2009, people started to pay attention when PhoneGap got rejected by Apple. They added Symbian and webOS support and Sony Ericsson started contributing to the project. They got rejected because all PhoneGap-developed apps were named "PhoneGap". This turned out to be good press for the project and Apple let them in shortly after.

In 2010, IBM began tag-teaming with Nitobi and added 5 developers to the project after meeting them at OSCON. In 2011, RIM started contributing as well as Microsoft. Then Adobe bought the company, so they're obviously contributing.

PhoneGaps Goals: the web is a first class platform, so let people create installable web apps. Their second goal is to cease to exist and get browsers to adopt their model.

PhoneGap is NOT a runtime or a compiler/transpiler. It's not an IDE or predefined framework or proprietary lockin. It's Apache, MIT and BSD licensed to guarantee it's as free as free software gets. You can do whatever you want to do with it. PhoneGap has recently been contributed to the Apache Software Foundation.

As far as Adobe vs. PhoneGap is concerned, the Nitobi team remains contributors to PhoneGap. Adobe is a software tools company and has Apache and WebKit contributors. PhoneGap/Build integration will be added to Creative Cloud.

The biggest issues with contributing PhoneGap to Apache is renaming the project and source control. I'm not sure why it needs to be renamed, but it's likely that Apache Callback is out. There seems to be some consensus on Apache Cordova. Apache likes SVN and the PhoneGap community currently uses Git. They're trying to find a medium road there, but would prefer to stay on Git.

The PhoneGap technique is colloquially called "the bridge". It's a 3 step process: they instantiate a WebView, then they call JavaScript from native code, then they call native code from JavaScript. Apparently, all device APIs are available via JavaScript in a WebView.

The primary platforms supported are iOS >= 3, Android >= 1.5 and BlackBerry >= 5.x. They also support webOS, Symbian, Samsung Bada and Windows Phone. No mobile dev platform supports as many deploy targets as PhoneGap. Primary contributors are Adobe, IBM, RIM and Microsoft.

Documentation for PhoneGap is available at Device APIs for PhoneGap 1.0 included sensors, data and outputs, which all devices have. Examples of sensors are geolocation and camera. Data examples are the filesystem, contacts and media. Outputs are screens, speakers and the speaker jack. All PhoneGap APIs are plugins, but any native API is permitted.

What about security? Brian recommends looking at the HTML5 Security Cheatsheet. PhoneGap has added a lot of security measures since they've found the native API pretty much opens up everything.

PhoneGap doesn't bundle a UI framework, but they support any JavaScript framework that works in the browser. PhoneGap is just a fancy browser, so your code run in less fancy web browsers too. This means you can develop and test your app in your desktop browser and only use PhoneGap to package and distribute your app.

Competition? PhoneGap has no competition.

PhoneGap/Build is for compiling your apps in the cloud and free for open source projects. The biggest reason they did this is because they couldn't redistribute all the SDKs and it was a pain for developers to download and install SDKs in training classes.

For mobile app development, you should have a singular goal. Do one thing really well if you want to be successful. Great UX happens iteratively. You know that the web works and has been widely successfully cross-platform. It's likely you've already invested in the web. Start by building a mobile web client and use PhoneGap as a progressive enhancement technique.

Shipping and unit testing should be a daily activity. Automate everything so you can have one-click builds (test/dev/release). For web client design, constraints are your ally in the battle against complexity and "clients who are not chill". Phones suck and consume a lot: cpu, ram, bandwidth, battery, network... everything! Start with a benchmark of app performance and monitor that benchmark. If you have tons and tons of features, consider splitting into multiple apps.

The mobile web is not WebKit! Opera is huge, Firefox is making strides and IE still happens. For layouts: use flex-box rules (anyone got a link to these?), css media queries and meta tags for viewport. You should try to develop your app without frameworks because they come with a ton of code and can effect the size of your app.

Looks can kill: aesthetics that can hurt performance: border-radius, box-shadow and gradients can slow down your apps. Chances are, you really don't need these features. Design your app for your brand, not for the device manufacturer. An app that looks like an iPhone app on Android doesn't give a positive impression.

For JavaScript libraries, start with your problem, not a generic solution like Sencha or jQuery Mobile. Zepto and its older brother XUI are all you need to start. Jo is a fantastic option. Backbone and Spine are worth watching.

For testing, QUnit and Jasmine are pretty popular. For deployment, concat, minify and obfuscate your JavaScript and CSS. Or you can inline everything into the markup to minimize HTTP chatter. Gmail inlines and comments all their JavaScript and then evals it.

From there, Brian recommended leveraging HTML5's AppCache and and using RESTful JSON endpoints for legacy systems. Next, he tried to show us a demo of a photo sharing application. Unfortunately, the Demo Gods were grumpy and Brian couldn't get his computer to recognize his Android phone. He did show us the client code and it's pretty impressive you can use 1 line of code to take a picture on a phone.

The last thing we looked at was This is an app that's powered by weinre. It lets you enter a line of JavaScript in your client and then remotely debug it in a tool that looks like Chrome's Web Inspector. Very cool stuff if you ask me.

I really enjoyed learning more about PhoneGap, particularly because Brain emphasized all my web development skills can be used. I don't have to learn Objective-C or Android to develop native apps and I don't even have to install an SDK if I use PhoneGap/Build. Of course, my mobile developer friends might disagree with this approach. In the meantime, I look forward to using PhoneGap to turn my mobile web clients into native apps and finding out if it's really as good as they say it is.

Posted in The Web at Nov 16 2011, 10:22:16 AM MST 2 Comments

Play 2.0, A web framework for a new era

This week, I'm in Antwerp, Belgium for the annual Devoxx conference. After traveling 21 hours door-to-door yesterday, I woke up and came to the conference to attend some talks on Play and PhoneGap. I just got out of the session on Play 2.0, which was presented by Sadek Drobi and Guillaume Bort. Below are my notes from this presentation.

The Play 2.0 beta is out! You can read more about this release on the mailing list. This beta includes native support for both Scala and Java, meaning you can use both in the same project. The release also bundles Akka and SBT by default.

In other news, Play 2.0 is now part of the Typesafe Stack. Typesafe is the Scala company, started by the founder of Scala (Martin Odersky) and the founder of Akka (Jonas Bonér). Guillaume is also joining the Typesafe Advisory Board.

Sadek and Guillaume both work at zenexity, where Play is the secret weapon for the web applications they've built for the last decade. Play was born in the real world. They kept listening to the market to see what they should add to the project. At some point, they realized they couldn't keep adding to the old model and they needed to create something new.

The web has evolved from static pages to dynamic pages (ASP, PHP). From there, we moved to structured web applications with frameworks and MVC. Then the web moved to Ajax and long-polling to more real-time, live features. And this changes everything.

Now we need to adapt our tools. We need to handle tremendous flows of data. Need to improve expressiveness for concurrent code. We need to pick the appropriate datastore for the problem (not only SQL). We need to integrate with rapidly-evolving client side technologies like JavaScript, CoffeeScript, and Dart. We need to use elastic deployment that allows scaling up and scaling down.

zenexity wanted to integrated all of these modern web needs into Play 2.0. But they also wanted to keep Play approachable. They wanted to maintain fast turnaround so you can change your code and hit reload to see the changes. They wanted to keep it as a full stack framework with support for JSON, XML, Web Services, Jobs, etc. And they wanted to continue to use and conventions over configuration.

At this point, Guillaume did a Play 2.0 Beta demo, show us how it uses SBT and has a console so everything so it runs really fast. You can have both Scala and Java files in the same project. Play 2.0 templates are based on Scala, but you don't need to know Scala to use them. You might have to learn how to write a for loop in Scala, but it's just a subset of Scala for templates and views. SBT is used for the build system, but you don't have to learn or know SBT. All the old play commands still work, they're just powered by a different system.

After the demo, Sadek took over and started discussing the key features of Play 2.0.

To handle tremendous amounts of data, you need to do chunking of data and be able to process a stream of data, not just wait until it's finished. Java's InputStream is outdated and too low level. Its read() method reads the next byte of data from the input and this method can block until input data is available.

To solve this, Play includes a reactive programming feature, which they borrowed from Haskell. It uses Iteratee/Enumerator IO and leverages inversion of control (not like dependency injection, but more like not micro-managing). The feature allows you to have control when you need it so you don't have to wait for the input stream to complete. The Enumerator is the component that sends data and the Iteratee is the component that receives data. The Iteratee does incremental processing and can tell the Enumerator when it's done. The Iteratee can also send back a continuation, where it tells the Enumerator it wants more data and how to give it. With this paradigm, you can do a lot of cool stuff without consuming resources and blocking data flow.

Akka is an actor system that is a great model for doing concurrent code. An Actor could be both an Enumerator and an Iteratee. This vastly improves the expressiveness for concurrent code. For example, here's how you'd use Akka in Play:

def search(keyword: String) = Action {
  AsyncResult {
    // do something with result

Play does not try to abstract data access because datastores are different now. You don't want to think of everything as objects if you're using something like MongoDB or navigating a Social Graph. Play 2.0 will provide some default modules for the different datastores, but they also expect a lot of contributed modules. Anorm will be the default SQL implementation for Play Scala and Ebean will be the default ORM implementation for Play Java. The reason they've moved away from Hibernate is because they needed something that was more stateless.

On the client side, there's so many technologies (LESS, CoffeeScript, DART, Backbone.js, jQuery, SASS), they didn't want to bundle any because they move too fast. Instead, there's plugins you can add that help you leverage these technologies. There's a lot of richness you can take advantage of on the client side and you need to have the tools for that.

Lastly, there's a new type of deployment: container-less deployment to the cloud. Akka allows you to distribute your jobs across many servers and Heroku is an implementation of elastic deployment that has built-in support for Play.

They've explained what they tried to design and the results of this new, clean architecture have been suprising. Side effects include: type-safety everywhere for rock-solid applications. There's an awesome performance boost from Scala. There's easier integration with existing projects via SBT. And it only takes 10 lines of code to develop an HTTP Server that responds to web requests.

The memory consumption is amazing: only 2MB of heap is used when a Play 2.0 app is started. Tests on Guillaume's laptop have shown that it can handle up to 40,000 requests per second, without any optimization of the JVM. Not only that, but after the requests subside, garbage collection cleans up everything and reduces the memory consumption back to 2MB.

At this point, Guillaume did another demo, showing how everything is type-safe in 2.0, including the routes file. If you mistype (or comment one out) any routes, the compiler will find it and notify you. Play 2.0 also contains a compiled assets feature. This allows you to use Google's Closure Compiler, CoffeeScript and LESS. If you put your LESS files in app/assets/stylesheets, compilation errors will show up in your browser. If you put JavaScript files in app/assets/javascripts, the Closure compiler will be used and compilation errors will show up in your browser.

Play 2.0 ships with 3 different sample applications, all implemented in both Java and Scala. HelloWorld is more than just text in a browser, it includes a form that shows how validation works. Another app is computer-database. When Guillaume started it, we saw how evolutions were used to create the database schema from the browser. The Play Team has done their best to make the development process a browser-based experience rather than having to look in your console. The computer-database is a nice example of how to do CRUD and leverages Twitter's Bootstrap for its look and feel.

The last sample application is zentasks. It uses Ajax and implements security so you can see how to create a login form. It uses LESS for CSS and CoffeeScript and contains features like in-place editing. If you'd like to see any of these applications in action, you can stop by the Typesafe booth this week at Devoxx.

Unfortunately, there will be no migrating path for Play 1.x applications. The API seems very similar, but there are subtle changes that make this difficult. The biggest thing is how templating has changed from Groovy to Scala. To migrate from 1.2.x would be mostly a copy/paste, modify process. There are folks working on getting Groovy templates working in 2.0. The good news is zenexity has hundreds of 1.x applications in production, so 1.x will likely be maintained for many years.

This was a great talk on what's new in Play 2.0. I especially like the native support for LESS and CoffeeScript and the emphasis on trying to keep developers using two tools: their editor and the browser. The sample apps look great, but the documentation look sparse. I doubt I'll get a chance to migrate my Play 1.2.3 app to 2.0 this month, but I hope to try migrating sometime before the end of the year.

Posted in Java at Nov 16 2011, 05:58:09 AM MST 11 Comments